Guilherme Fontana SANCHEZ


The internal conflict in the Republic of Yemen has its roots in the
movement known as the 2011 Arab Spring, when a popular revolt forced President Ali
Abdullah Saleh to leave power in the hands of Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansour
Hadi. The political transition was expected to lead to stability, but the new president
faced several problems, such as the strengthening of Al-Qaeda, the separatist
movement and famine. The study in question had as its main objective to understand
the causes of the civil war and the responsibility of the great foreign powers in its
unfolding, most notably of the United States of America. The conflict, it appears, has
ideological origins: the Hutis (Houthis) took advantage of political instability and seized
significant portions of Yemeni territory. In 2015, a coalition of Saudi Arabians and eight
US-backed Arab countries attacked the Hutis under the guise of restoring the Hadi
government. This coalition, in turn, firmly states that the rebels are structurally
supported by Iran, a fact denied by Iranian authorities. This coalition tried at all costs
to establish a government, and succeeded, more precisely in the city of Aden. The
consequences of the conflict are described by the UN as one of the most serious in
History, which includes food insecurity, people dying from the worst cholera epidemic
ever recorded and internal displacement of large populations. One point, however, is
of the utmost importance: more than half of the deaths were caused by attacks by the
heavily backed US-backed Saudi coalition. Although arguing that the coalition is
fighting a separatist group for freedom or the establishment of a democratic regime,
the world's richest country bears a great deal of responsibility in developing the conflict.
Through this study, it was possible to understand that the Americans, through their
military and political support (which remained even after the imbroglios that involved
the Saudis), are one of the main responsible and causes of what is probably the biggest
humanitarian crisis on the planet. Through a deductive methodology, doctrinal study
and research of issues involving geopolitics, International Law and Human Rights, it
was crystal clear that, although Saudi Arabia and the United States act for a legitimate
reason (which is allegedly the struggle against religious fundamentalism and political
stability), this action should not violate any right of the Yemeni population and should
be based on international humanitarian law.

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